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1-103 (Original)

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addressee author,male,Howe, George,un
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Howe, 1806
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Gardening: Potatoes should now be planted, both in the garden and field, for a general crop for the winter consumption: this is the best season of the year for planting this valuable root, as these potatoes will come into use in the middle of winter and beginning of spring, when cabbages, turnips, &c. generally run to feed: Dry wheat stubble, where the land is light, or new ground is the best to plant them in: The sets should be the produce of the preceding winter crop; and when planted should have a covering of light manure; for if they be planted without dung they will greatly impoverish the ground: but if manured, be of very essential service to it. - Carrots may also be sown this month for a general crop; the ground should be dug very deep, and broke very fine. If the ground is light, sow the seed in a clam day, and tread it in. Carrots may be sown for table use at several seasons of the year; [14] and Lettuces; Radishes, and small Sallad for a constant supply, may be sown every month.
Agriculture: The farmer should now be diligent in cleaning his Maize, and breaking up the ground he intends to sow with Wheat and Barley. Experience has shewn that no certain crop can be produced if the ground is not ploughed or broken up two or three months before seed time. The longer it is exposed to the influence of the sun and air, the better it will be prepared for the reception of the seed. as the summer heat will tend to kill the weeds, meliorate the soil, and give the farmer a greater probability of reaping the reward of his toils. Should he neglect to plough or hoe his ground till near seed time, the weeds will overrun it, and greatly impoverish the land; their destruction will be much more laborious and difficult; and, should the autumn prove wet, they may prevent him from sowing the ground he intended.
Sheep: In the beginning of this month the Ram should be sent to the old Ewe Flocks in order that they may bring forth in winter. Winter lambs will always be found much stronger and hardier sheep that those lambed in summer; they will also be ready to wean the latter end of August or the beginning of September, when the spring will afford them plenty of grass; so that the young lambs will feel no check when taken from the mother. Young ewes lambed last May and June should be selected into a separate flock, and kept from the ram till March: if they are suffered to remain with the flock, many of them will lamb in June, at the time the old ewes do. Young ewes generally rear their first lambs with difficulty; on that account they should not lamb before spring, when the weather is warmer, and the grass better.
Gardening: Ground should now be prepared for Cabbages and Turnips; at the latter end of the month should there be any gentle showers, some turnips may be sown. [15] Cabbages may be sown every three months for a constant supply; all sorts of sweet herbs should be slipt this month. Trees of every kind should now be budded, but the tops of the budded flocks should not be cut off till September following; when such buds as look well will make vigorous shoots. Peaches may be budded upon their own stocks, or upon plumbs, almonds, or apricots. The English Mulberry upon the cherry or Cape; but they will take better upon the former. Oranges will succeed well upon lemons. It is better to bud all tenden [sic] trees in summer, than to graft them in spring.
Agriculture: Those farmers who intend to sow turnips for sheep should now manure and prepare their land; turnip ground should be cleared from all weeds and brought by digging or ploughing and harrowing into the best state for cultivation. This is also the proper season for sowing winter barley, here commonly called Cape barley, as green food for horses, cows, sheep, and hogs. It will be ready for feeding in the beginning of April or sooner: one acre of winter barley will yield an incredible quantity of green food, which may either be mowed and given to cattle, or fed off with any kind of stock; it will continue in constant vegetation, whether cut or fed, for three or four months. - This is also the best month to prepare the ground for wheat by ploughing or breaking it up with the hoe. When the ground is turned over in dry hot weather, the weeds are easily destroyed - an important object the experienced farmer never loses sight of. - Ground should always if possible be turned up in dry weather, to kill the weeds.
Gardening: This is the proper season for planting Strawberries, all the runners and leaves should be cut close off before planting, as this will strengthen hem greatly, and they will get new leaves before the winter: they may be either kept in clumps, or suffered to run over the beds: [16] 
by the former method they will grow to a larger size, but by the latter they are less apt to contract filth. As soon as the strawberries are cut and planted, a sprinkling of fresh earth should be thrown over the beds; and when the weather is dry they should be plentifully watered two or three times a week. Strawberries require much air, and ought therefore to be thinned in order to a free circulation. (When sowed in beds, the method found best to succeed is the following: When the bed is well prepared, plant the rows for the largest kinds (such as the Chilies and Carolinas) two feet asunder, also allowing one foot between each plant in the same row. The smaller kinds do not require to de kept so far a-part; so that 18 inches between the rows, and 8 from plant to plant will be generally sufficient). - This is likewise the proper season for sowing Onions for immediate use; but for a general crop they should not be sown till the latter end of April of beginning of May, as they will run too much to feed if the season should be favourable. - The Fruit Trees should now be examined, and all the branches broken by the fruit lopped off, as well as dead limbs. Peach trees in particular will require a deal of trimming, as many of their limbs will be broken down.
Agriculture: From the middle of this month to the end of April all forest land should be sown with Wheat. As the late Maize is not ripe enough to gather in March, some farmers sow their wheat among the standing maize: this is very bad husbandry, and ruinous to the farmer: It would be much more to his interest to let his maize stand until it is ripe; then clean and prepare his ground for the next season, and only sow such land with wheat as is ready and well prepared. - Turnips should be sown for a general crop the first week in this month, should the weather admit, and they will be ready to give to the sheep in the beginning of May: One pound of seed is sufficient for an acre. During the time of their growth they will want hoeing twice or three times, to thin them and keep them clean. - Turnips should be sown for a general crop the first week in this month, should the weather admit, and they will be ready to give to the sheep the beginning of May: [17] - One pound of seed is sufficient for an acre: during the time of their growth they will want hoeing twice or three times to thin them, and keep them clean. - Turnips for domestic use may be sown at any time between March and September.
Sheep: The ram should be put to the young ewe flock this month; one not more than 18 months old would be better than an older ram.
Gardening: Asparagus haulm should now be cut down within two inches of the bed, and carried off the ground: all the weeds are to be cut up with a sharp hoe; then some good rotten dung must be spread over the beds, and laid in equal thickness on every part: the alleys dug one spade deep, and the earth spread upon the whole. The feed of small sallad may also be sown now - onions may be sown this month for a general crop, and cabbage feed, lettuces, &c.
Agriculture: The farmers settled upon the banks of the Hawkesbury and Nepean should consider, that from the middle of April to the end of May is their best season for sowing Wheat. Early sown wheat generally yields better, is a much more certain crop, and not so subject to the caterpillar, smut, rust and blight, to which late wheat is always liable. Forward wheat is too near maturity to be much injured in the beginning of November, when the close hot sultry weather with scarce a breath of air sets in, the season the caterpillar, smut, rust, and blight most prevail. The farmer should guard as much as possible against every danger to which his crop is exposed while in the field; and the best precaution is early sowing. - Oats may now be sown for a general crop; three bushels are sufficient for an acre. Peas and beans may likewise be sown in the field. [18] 
Gardening: Small sallad herbs may be sown all this month for a constant supply: about the end of this month the leaves of artichokes should be cut down, and the plants earthed up. - Onions may also be sown on rich land for a general crop, if the weather is moist. All kinds of fruit trees, excepting ever-greens, should now be pruned; and such branches as are cut off should be taken close to the tree, that the wounded part may soon heal, which will prevent the wet from injuring the tree.
Agriculture: The farmer is to continue to sow wheat all this month as before directed, and to finish sowing before June; spring barley should also be sown at this season upon all forest land: Three bushels of barley is sufficient for an acre, or two and a half if well cleaned.
Sheep: The ewes that were put to the ram last January will begin to drop their lambs towards the end of this month; those that are weak thro' age or poverty should have a few turnips given to them a fortnight or three weeks before they lamb, which will greatly assist them and enable them to bring up their lambs. If they have no turnips or some other substitute many of them will die, the nights being long, and the grass bad in the woods at this season. Ewes that are in good condition will want no more than common care before they lamb.
Gardening: This is the proper season for transplanting all kinds of fruit trees, except ever greens, shorten the roots, and trim them; the roots of a tree when planted should spread like a man's open hand and should not be put more than three inches below the common surface. When the hole is filled up let the earth be gently trodden round the plant. Layers may be made, and cuttings planted from hardy trees. [19] 
Agriculture: Spring Barley should be sown this month upon all rich land; the ground must be made fine by ploughing, harrowing, and rolling before it is sown. Barley is a tender plant, and will not bear sowing upon rough ground, because it would be buried too deep when harrowed in, which will prevent its coming up: three bushels of seed per acre will be sufficient, or two and a half if well cleaned.
Sheep: This will be the principal lambing season; Ewes and lambs will now require the constant care of the shepherd; and it will be prudent in the sheep farm to put all the ewes into one flock as they drop their lambs, under the care of an attentive man: Let them be fed twice a day with turnips, till the lambs get strong and able to follow the other flock, as it is a great injury to young lambs to drive them into the woods with the strong flock for the first ten days. Those who wish to preserve their lambs and ewes must spare no expence, especially if the weather be wet, stormy, and cold. Much may be done for their welfare in the severest seasons by MAN's care; for sheep are so delicate, that they will not do well without assistance from Man.
Gardening: Fruit trees that were not transplanted last month must now be removed. - Stocks to bud and graft upon must now be transplanted. - Cabbage seed may now be sown for table use in spring. - Ground must now be prepared for a general crop of Potatoes, both in the garden and field. - Carrots may also be sown; they will thrive best in an open situation, and upon light sandy ground, well dug. - Strawberries should now be cleaned, and have their spring dressing: the runners must be cut off from the plants, and the beds cleaned from weeds: the ground must then be loosened, and a little fresh earth or fine dung laid between the rows; this will make the plants strong, and produce large fruit. [20] 
Agriculture: Potatoes planted in January should now be dug, and laid for use in spring: They should be dug in cloudy weather, and bruised as little as possible; they should not be exposed to the sun, but laid under cover to dry, as they will rot if dried in the sun. Potatoes being always valuable in spring, when other vegetables run to feed, too much care cannot be taken of the winter crop.
Sheep: Must be attended as in the preceding month.
Gardening: Cucumbers and Mellons should now be sown; and ever greens transplanted: as those trees are found to be very tender, the work must be done with great care; they should be carefully dug round, taken up with a ball of earth, and placed in the ground with the ball where they are to remain; ever greens will not bear to have their roots exposed to the air like the trees that cast their leaves. The nursery will now want cleaning, and the young trees prepared for grafting. The weeds must now be cut down and destroyed, or they will give much trouble the next month. The gardener should carefully examine all the fruit trees, cut off every decayed branch, and open the ground about the roots of those trees which appear sickly and stunted. Vines must be cut early this month and their cuttings planted when new vineyards are to be made.
Agriculture: Potatoes must now be planted for a general summer crop; and the largest and finest potatoes should be chosen for seed; very rotten manure is not so good for potatoes as fresh stable dung and old thatch: if the ground be rich and light, the potatoes will be much better in quality without any dung, tho' not so plentiful a crop. Turnip ground must now be cleaned, broke up, and prepared for grass and clover; and as land cannot be made too fine for grass seed, there should be no weeds nor any large clods left. By repeated rolling and harrowing, the ground will be pulverised, the weeds destroyed, and the soil prepared for the reception of the seed. [21] Eight pounds of Dutch clover, and two bushels of clean rye grass seed will be sufficient for an acre. - Ground may this month also be ploughed for maize, as this will kill the weeds, which if left to grow in September will be very strong, and greatly impoverish the ground: weeds should never be suffered to ripen their seeds.
Sheep: The young ewes that were put to the ram in March will now begin to drop their lambs: turnips being nearly expended, they should have the best pasture the Farmer can give them. If possible some open ground that has been in cultivation should be reserved for them. What food they pick up in open ground will be more nourishing than the grass in the woods, and will help them to give more milk to the lambs; as the days are getting longer and warmer, and the grass better, there will not be much danger of their doing well if they are attended to and fed.
Gardening: This is the proper season to graft fruit trees; the scions which are intended for grafts should be cut off a fortnight or three weeks before, & the ends which are cut stuck in the ground till they are wanted for use; the tops of all the trees which were budded last February must now be cut down within about 8 inches of the bud; this wood above the bud is left on to tie the young shoot to, that it may not be broken off by the wind. No shoots must be suffered to grow but the eye that was budded, all others must be rubbed off as soon as they appear.
Agriculture: Ground should now be got ready for planting with maize, which may be planted with safety when the bud of the English Mulberry breaks and not before. [22] This will shew the state of the soil and atmosphere, and that no danger is to be apprehended from the frost, maize being a tender plant that will not bear the frost. - Grass or clover may be sown either in autumn or spring; it will be better to sow them the first week in this month if the weather be favourable, and a prospect of gentle rains; they will grow well after turnips if the ground is properly cleaned and made fine.
Sheep: Some of the early winter lambs may be weaned the latter end of this month; they should be kept in a flock by themselves for three months, and fed upon the best pastures; the strong wether lambs may then be turned into the old wether flock, as they will be able to travel with them; the female lambs had better be still kept by themselves till March, and no ram suffered to come near them; when they will be old enough to breed: they will then drop their lambs in August, the safest season for young ewes to lamb, when both spring and warm weather are at hand.
Gardening: All the young trees that were grafted in the beginning of last month should now be examined, and all young shoots broke off, excepting one or two, both from that grafts and stocks; the clay must be taken off, and the bandages loosened; the ground between the rows of all kinds of young trees should be kept clean from weeds, or they will not the trees of their proper nourishment. [sic] - Apricots and Peach Trees should now be examined, and where the fruit is set too thick, as will be the case in favourable seasons, they must be reduced to a moderate quantity: this should be done with care, and the fruit only that is proper to remain selected, and left upon the trees. [23] The tops of onions will also want breaking down this month, where they are forward, to prevent their running to seed.
Agriculture: The farmer should now plant as much of his maize this month as possible, in order that he may finish planting before his harvest sets in: He should also clean and earth up his potatoes. If this work is not done how he will not have time to attend to it when his wheat is ripe; and by that means his future crop will be greatly injured. Maize and potatoes are such very essential articles of food, as well as almost certain crops that the farmer cannot be too anxious and diligent in their cultivation; as should his other crops fail, these will furnish him with the certain means of support for his family.
Sheep: Lambs dropped from the middle of October to the end of December will require particular care and attention in the proprietor. These summer lambs will always be found very weak and delicate; and if they receive no more than common care, many of them will die after weaning in March or April. They should be assisted with better food that [sic] what the woods produce, in order to enable them to endure the winter season, which is very trying to summer lambs. - Turnips and artificial grasses are the best food that can be given to them; and where these cannot be obtained the lambs should have a little maize twice a day for some time after they are weaned.
Gardening: Trees that were inoculated last Summer will now want the young shoots tying; either to the top of the stock, or else a stake must be driven in near to them, to which the shoot must be tied to prevent the wind from breaking it off. [24] - Budded and grafted trees will want constant attention. - All other shoots but such as grow from the eye of the bud, or from the graft, must be taken off, that the graft or bud may receive all the nourishment the flock can afford. - Ever Greens may now be propagated by layers; layer must only be made from the young shoots of the same summer's growth: If proper shoots are chosen, and these properly laid, many of them will be well rooted by the following March, and in a condition to be separated from their mother plant. - Cabbage, Lettuce, and Turnip may be sown for the use of the table.
Agriculture: About the middle of this month the harvest becomes pretty general thro' the Colony; the farmer should have his staddles [sic] and thatch ready for his stacks, that his labourers may have nothing to attend to, but the securing of the grain the moment it is ready to cut. No wheat ought to be stacked upon the ground, as the moisture which arises from the earth ascends thro' the stack, & tends much in this warm climate to increase the weevils, which prove very destructive to the wheat. He should be also very diligent in securing his wheat as soon as it is ready to stack for fear of rain, for if he trusts too much to the weather he is liable to great risque: when wheat is cut and afterwards wet with rain the straw becomes so very brittle that it will not bear to be handled the first warm day, and the wheat shells very much, from whence great loss arises.
Sheep: If the weather be warm the farmer may begin early in this month to shear his strong sheep; but should the season be wet, it would be better to defer this work till the weather is fine and dry. Wet is at all times very injurious to sheep, and particularly newly shorn. - Lambs that were dropped in April or May, may also be shorn, but it would be prudent not to shear them till the end of December. [25] 
Gardening: Cauliflower; Brecoli, and Carrot Seed may now be sown, and the ground prepared for planting potatoes next month. Peach Trees should be thinned of their fruit where they are too thick: Ever Greens may also be propagated by layers, as directed last month.
Agriculture: This month must be employed principally in getting in and securing the harvest. Many, as soon as their wheat or barley is reaped, immediately plant their stubble ground with maize: this is very bad husbandry; a practice that can never answer for any length of time. The farmer who strives to grow one crop of wheat and another of maize upon the same ground in one year, does not consult his own interest; by this mode of cultivation he greatly impoverishes his ground, puts himself to an additional expence of labour, and risques the success of both his following crops; the farmer plants his stubble ground in December. If the frost happens [hppens] for one night in April the whole of his maize is probably destroyed before it comes to maturity. Should no accident happen to his crop of maize, yet it will not be fit to gather till the proper season for sowing wheat is over. Many, it is true, sow their wheat on thir [sic] corn ground when full of rubbish and weeds, as the seed time is too far advanced to permit them to prepare their ground for wheat when the maize comes off: this custom tends eventually to deceive and ruin the farmer, for this reason; a farmer seldom calculates upon the probable quantity of gram [sic] his farm may produce, but upon the number of acres he has in cultivation: he does not take into his estimate that 10 acres sown at a proper season, and on land in good cultivation, will produce more than 30 sown at an improper season and on land in bad cultivation. Upon this mistaken principle he lives above his income, and contracts debts with a false hope of liquidating them in harvest; when to his own and his creditors disappointment his crop has failed.
Sheep: On the first of this month the Rams should be put to the Ewes, in order to that bringing forth their Lambs in the latter end of April or beginning of May, which is the best season, if any artificial food be prepared for the Ewes; for as the nights are long and cold, they will require some assistance of this kind. Should the Sheep Farmer not think it an object to prepare Turnips and other food for his Ewes, the Ram should not be put to the Flock till the first of March; and his Ewes will then lamb nearer Spring, and stand a better chance of bringing up their Lambs, as the weather will be warmer, and the days getting longer.