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1-010 (Original)

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addressee,family author,male,Fowell, Newton,23
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Plaint Text :
Private Written
Private Correspondence
Irvine, 1988
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1-010.txt — 6 KB

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Latd obsd 34°.30'S
Stood along the shore at 4 or 5 Miles Distance from it ill 6 oclock when we saw the entrance of Botany Bay bearing NNW Stood off & on all night - 20th [Jan. 1788] Fresh Breeze from SSW at 5 Stood for the Bay it than bearing North 3 Leagues. at 7 We were between Point Solander & Cape Banks. Saw the Supply and Transports which parted Company on the 25 of November. the Supply's boat came on board. informed us they were all well on board, that the Supply had been in the Bay only two days & the Transports only one Day. At 8 we Anchored bringing Pt. Solander to bear SSE Cape Banks ESE. Got immediately Grass on board for the Cattle.. on the Passage we were so unfortunate as to loose two of the Cowes.. Suppose they must have died chiefly for want of Provisions & the frequent falls they got by the motion of the Ship -. The Entrance of Botany Bay is rather Narrow as a reef of rocks runs out from a small round bare Island which in coming in you leave to the Northward of you keeping in Mid Channel or rather inclining towards the Southern Shore & Steer about WNW Cape Banks is on the North Shore & is very Rocky you must not by any means go near it as the Water is Shoal but there is a low rocky point which runs out to the Eastward of it which you may pass within a Quarter a mile of.. Point Solander cannot be seen from the Sea but there is a Bluff head which lies to the Southard of the entrance which you see. it has scarce any Trees on it Point Solander is rather Low has a Number of Trees on it and the Distance from this Point to Cape Banks I judge to be rather better than a Mile. on the South side of the entrance there is four & five Fathoms Water within a hundred Yards of the Shore. B. Bay is very spacious and has several sandy Beaches in it & goes far to the Southward of Point Solander to the Southwd of Point Southerland (which is only a small Rockey Point that runs off from a Sandy Beach) is very Shoal Water and not fit for any Vessals to Anchor not having at low Water above 5 or 6 feet. [66] 
Within half a Mile of the Sandy Beach on the North Shore the Water is Deeper after you pass Bare Island. there is 6, 7, or 8 Faths Water within a Quarter a Mile of the Shore. There are two Leguna's one in the NW the other in the SW part of the Bay, the NW Leguna I beleive is only navigable for Small Vessals & Boats. the SW has Water enough for a Sizeable Ship. there is a Bar lies off the SW Leguna which has not above 12 or 14 feet Water at Low Water. The Shore all round is like a thick Wood & the Soil very Sandy, the Grass in most places is about 2 feet high but not thick. here & There is spots of underwood The Trees are in General about 20 Yards Distance from each other In the Afternoon of the 20th Sent a Party of men on Shore on Point Southerland to clear away a Run of Water which is rather scarce here Capt. Cook mentions cutting the Ships Name & the month Year &c on one of the Trees but it never could be found. the Tree may still be Standing the Bark is very thick and if he did not cut through it it in time will Disappear as some of the trees Shed a thin coat of their Bark Yearly I suppose some have this thin coat very loose and quite sundried so by the least touch it will fall off.
this tree is called the Sanguis Dragonis on account of the red juice not unlike Port Wine that comes from it when cut down. I tasted some of it it had a very rough bitter taste. The Govonor and other officers employed in different boats searching about different Creeks for fresh Water. a Lance was thrown at Mr King. but did no hurt he afterwards landed & they were very friendly, he gave them several trinkets. The Govonor immediately the Supply Anchored went in one of her boats to Land. several of the Natives gathered to the Place where the boat was to Land on his approaching near the Shore they Brandished their Spears & seemed to dispute his Landing. he immediately put off and pulled round a Low Point & landed at a small distance from the Natives.
he approached toward them. they would not come near him till he had laid down a Gun he had in his hand which I think plainly shows they must remember to have seen some of Capt. Cook's People do some Execution with Guns. however they had an amicable intercourse & they parted very friendly.
January 21 The Govonor accompanied by Capt. Hunter & some other officers went in Boats to examine Port Jackson which lies 9 miles to the Northward of B. Bay. Mr King went up the S W Leguna where he found a very good soil but no signs of any Fresh Water had a party of men on shore to clear away Ground in readiness for Pitching Tents &c against the return of the Govonor if his intentions where to make the Settlement here; Saw a number of Natives who came to the boats just at Sunset when the People were going on board all of them have a Spear made of hard Wood & Sharpened by scraping it with a Shell. It is about 12 feet in Length and joined in Several Places with Gum. they can throw them about 70 yards. this sort of Spear we afterward found to be the War Spear another sort they have for fishing which is about the same Length having four prongs at the end & at the end of each prong is a fishes tooth very nicely fastned with Gum & bearded with the same. this they use by throwing it with their hand and only at fish. the other they throw' with a Stick about 3 feet long that has a crook at one end which they hook in the end of the Spear & throw it with great exactness. at the other end is a Shell they use for scraping their Spear & opening Oysters. they speak very Loud and mostly all together very often Pronouncing the Words Worra Worra Wea & seemed quite surprized at not being answered. one of the Ships sent a Boat to haul her Sceine. when the Natives saw the fish come on the beach they immediately ran in the Net speared the fish & carried them away. they were not stoped for fear of a disturbance The next day one of the Part took a fife on Shore played several tunes to the Natives who were highly delighted with it espetially at seeing some of the Seamen dance. [67]